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Ukrainianization of Windows/PC/DOS-based Applications
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Ukrainianization of Macintosh by Zenon Feszczak (non-technical)
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Ukrainianization of Macintosh
By Zenon M. Feszczak


Welcome to the wild and wonderful world of Ukrainianizing the Macintosh!

This documentation should be of interest to anyone seeking to read or write Ukrainian text on an Apple Macintosh computer.

With the advent of WorldScript software technology, the Apple Macintosh is capable of extensive and impressive multi-lingual abilities, and excels in managing Cyrillic text alongside Latin text.

We will discuss the Possibilities for Ukrainianization, including localizing an English operating system to work with Ukrainian text, and implementing a complete Ukrainian operating system.

The System Software required will be described, and the path to obtaining the Holy Grail of Ukrainianization will be revealed to the faithful!

We will also cover localizing Applications to operate in Ukrainian, and specify other Resources for further information.

DISCLAIMER: The author of this document is in no way affilliated with Apple Computer. Further, the author assumes no responsibility for unpredictable consequences resulting from the modifications suggested herein. However, the author will promise to experience deep feelings of guilt if said unpredictable consequences are negative.

Emphatic expressions of gratitude are rained down upon the following:

InfoMeister, Apple Computer, Inc., CDV Apple Ukraine, Max Pyziur, Sasha Golovin, Matvey Palchuk, L. Jake Jacobson, Monty Python, Gregorius Skovoroda, and, of course, Taras Shevchenko for making the whole project worth the trouble. Oh,and BU-BA-BU!


  • CDV Apple Ukraine now distributing their Ukrainian Macintosh products in North America! Software MacKiev (1-800-MAC-UKRAINE) and Yevshan (1-(800)-265-9858).


    Prepare to set the pigeons loose! Apple Computer is developing a Cyrillic Language Kit, to be released very soon. The Kit include support for modern Ukrainian, Russian, and Bulgarian. This product will be available in disk or CD-ROM versions, and will include software to enable Cyrillic text processing on a Macintosh, along with Cyrillic keyboard stickers, documentation, and additional software. Watch this space for future announcements . . .


    Available right here at the exalted BRAMA, which is located nowhere near the Carpathian mountains, and which is completely unrelated to the historic battle of Poltava! If you just can't wait to try these, then go directly to System Software, where prices are so low you'll expect to be arrested!


Let us now consider the possibilities for Ukrainianization. In each case, we will describe the given approach, the required and optional software, and instructions for installation. Descriptions and information on obtaining system resources may be found in Ukrainianization of System Software.

English System + Ukrainian Read-Only


This is the simplest approach, in which the computer is enabled to read Ukrainian text. Obviously, the application of interest must be capable of reading Ukrainian text. Also, the user should be capable of reading Ukrainian text. Failing this, it's time to start studying.


  • Ukrainian Fonts


  1. Install the Ukrainian fonts in the System Folder. In System versions 7.1 and greater, these fonts simply must be placed in the Fonts folder. In earlier versions of the system software, the fonts must either be dragged (how violent!) into the System file itself, or the ancient and archaic Font/DA Mover utility must be utilized.
  2. Restart the system.
  3. Set up the Applications of interest to use the Cyrillic font of choice.


There's nothing more to do once you've properly set up applications. These applications should now properly display both Latin and Cyrillic text.

English System + Ukrainian Read-Write

Now we will consider how to enable the Macintosh to read and write Ukrainian text. So, the application of interest must be capable of reading and writing Ukrainian text. Also, the user should be capable of reading and writing Ukrainian text. But you knew that already.


  • Cyrillic script resource for system file
  • Software Ukrainian keyboard layouts
  • Apple Standard Cyrillic Fonts


  • Language Kit Extension (to enable Cyrillic capabilities in the Finder)
  • Additional Ukrainian fonts in appropriate encoding


  1. Install the Ukrainian fonts in the System Folder.
  2. Install the Cyrillic script and keyboard layouts into the System file itself.
  3. Install the Language Kit Extension in System Folder:Extensions.
  4. Restart the system. A keyboard menu (a cute flag) should now appear near the top right of the menu bar.
  5. To enable Cyrillic capabilities in the Finder, select an Apple Standard Cyrillic font in the Views Control Panel.
  6. Set up the Applications of interest to use the Cyrillic font of choice.


Reading Ukrainian text is now a simple matter in properly configured applications. One may have to choose a font in the proper encoding for a given text file.

To write in Ukrainian, one must choose a Ukrainian font in the desired encoding, and a Ukrainian keyboard in the same encoding. The keyboard is selected in the keyboard menu (the flag).

Full Ukrainian System

The truly obsessed may wish to have a full Ukrainian System. In such a configuration, every system menu and dialog box appears in Ukrainian! Obviously, this arrangement includes the capability of reading and writing Ukrainian in applications which support this function. Other applications will generally work as expected, supporting English as usual. In this author's experience, the Ukrainian implementation is beautiful, and the multi-lingual ability is seamless. The Ukrainian System is available in version 7.5, and includes a full set of fonts and software keyboard resources for English, Ukrainian, and Russian.

Apple Ukrainian system software, as well as hardware Cyrillic keyboards, and Ukrainian-localized versions of applications (such as 4th Dimension, ClarisWorks, and PageMaker) are produced by Apple Ukraine, now distributing their Ukrainian Macintosh products in North America via Software MacKiev (1-800-MAC-UKRAINE) and Yevshan (1-(800)-265-9858).


  • Apple Ukrainian System Software

Ukrainianization of System Software

General Information

For further information, please see the section on System Resources on the Russification of Macintosh server, courtesty of Matvey Palchuk.

Cyrillic Script

The Cyrillic script is a piece of System Software which allows the Macintosh to work with Cyrillic text. The script must be installed into the System file itself. There exist scripts for both Ukrainian and Russian Macintosh Operating Systems. This script must be installed if the user wishes to type Cyrillic text.

If one obtains either the Ukrainian or Russian operating system, a Cyrillic script is included. Otherwise, the freely available Russian script may be obtained from Apple via the Internet. This script will allow the user to work in both Russian and Ukrainian. Information on obtaining and installing the Russian script may be found here, at the Russification of Macintosh server.

Language Kit Extension

The Language Kit Extension is a System Extension, which allows the Macintosh Operating System to work simultaneously with multiple languages. That is, the Macintosh is enabled to work with multiple WorldScript script systems. In this case, we would like the System to utilize both the Roman script (for English and European languages) and the Cyrillic script.

Without this extension, the System can only work with a single script at a time, so that the Finder and dialog boxes will not correctly display Cyrillic text items in an English system.

The Language Kit Extension may be obtained by downloading the Chinese Language Kit Updater (yes, you read that right) from the Apple Software Updates Archive.

Apple Standard Cyrillic Fonts

For the Cyrillic script to work properly, Apple Standard Cyrillic Fonts must be installed. Anyway, you won't regret the acquisition of these fonts, as they are among the most beautiful Cyrillic fonts available!

Information on obtaining and installing these fonts may be found here, at the Russification of Macintosh server. Though these fonts are from the Apple Russian System, they also provide full support for the Ukrainian character set.

Other Fonts

  • ER Cyrillic Fonts

    New! Cyrillic Fonts created by Gavin Helf are now available for both Macintosh and Windows operating systems; they were adapted for the Macintosh by Zenon M. Feszczak and L. Jake Jacobson. These fonts are available for the following Cyrillic codings: CP 1251, CP 866, KOI8, and Apple Standard Cyrillic; and they come in four font styles: Bukinist (a Times-face), Univers (a Helvetica-face), Kurier (a monospaced font) and Architect (a decorative font). The fonts can be downloaded from BRAMA archives.

Software Keyboard Resources

One must install the necessary keyboard resource to permit typing in Cyrillic.

  • Ukrainian-English transliterated keyboards
    New!Transliterated keyboards created by Zenon M. Feszczak. These software keyboards were created for KOI8 and Apple Standard Cyrillic encodings. These keyboards allows typing in Ukrainian from a standard English keyboard.

    There are subtle and ingenious design differences among the Lviv, Kyiv, and Poltava designs, and one is encouraged to spend hours attempting to decipher the political symbolism of the designs correlated with the respective Ukrainian city names. No guarantee is made, however, that such a symbolism exists as an objective, that is to say, immanent, design element.

    In the Lviv design, for example, all punctuation characters have been preserved. One accesses the additional Ukrainian characters via the Option key. Depressing the Caps Lock key in all layouts switches to the Latin character set, for typing in English (or Latin! Post hoc ergo propter hoc!).




    These magical and mysterious keyboards can be freely downloaded from the infamous BRAMA archives.

    Ukrainianization of Applications

    To utilize Ukrainian in applications, one must first install the appropriate system resources, as described in Ukrainianization of System Software. The possible arrangements, as determined by the capabilities desired (reading Ukrainian, or reading and writing, or a full Ukrainian operation system) are discussed in the Possibilities section.

    Applications vary in their ability to handle Cyrillic text. In many cases, one simply needs to select a Cyrillic font for the given application. Often, however, the process is a bit more complicated and annoying. Tragically, some applications are completely incapable of handling Cyrillic text; pity them, show them compassion, and move on.

    For detailed information on configuring various applications for Cyrillic, please see the Applications section of the Russification of Macintosh server.

    The methods for Ukrainianization are generally identical to those for Russian localization, with this notable exception: The Ukrainian user must specify a Ukrainian font rather than a Russian font, wherever a font specification is called for. Obviously. Note that some fonts, such as the ER Fonts on this server, contain full character sets for Ukrainian, Russian, and English.


    Apple Computer

    General Cyrillic Information

    This document was compiled by:
    Zenon Feszczak

    Last update December 8, 1996
    Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Zenon Feszczak, all rights reserved

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